Investment Opportunities in Mineral Sector
MINERAL DEPOSITS FOR EXPLOITATION
Iron Ore Deposits Of Chagai-Magmatic Arc (Zone 11)
The Magnetite/hematite deposit of Chilgazhi (290-08? N:640 14? E), and Pachin- Koh and Chigandek? in andesitic Sinjrani? volcanics, are massive to disseminated and or layered or plugs. Chilgazhi with 23 million tonne resources carries 33%? Fe, 0.39% Cu. and 208 g/tone Au., whereas Pachinkoh Chigandek having 30.0 m tonne proved and 40.0 m tonne resouce have 67-82 % Fe2O3. Other smaller deposits also exist in this zone.
Iron Ore in Sedimentary Fold Belt (ZONE-3)
This category includes the 350.0 million tonne reserves of Kalabagh-Chichali Cretaceous Chamositic and glauconite-sedirite ore in Punjab and the 166 million tonne resources of Pezu and Nizampur (NWFP). The ore on average has 33-35% iron. The sedimentary fold belt also carries 200.0 million tonne of hematitic ore (30-45% Fe) at Dilband-Kalat, Balochistan. Fairly developed infrastructure facilities exist in all these areas.
Gypsum/Anhydrite in the Foreland Sedimentary Fold Belt (Zone-3)
Over billions tonne inexhaustible measured reserves of gypsum anhydrite with 30-40% CaO occur at numerous areas in Northwest Frontier Province/Federally Administrated Frontier Regions, Punjab, Sindh and Balochistan. These areas have fairly developed infrastructure such as roads and power.
Soft Decorative Stones (Marble etc)
Pakistan is known for onyx which is exported. Other marble deposits of different attractive colours, shades and fabric exist in inexhaustible quantities in North West FrontierProvince, the Northern areas, Azad Jummu Kashmir, Federally Administrated Tribal Area, Balochistan and some parts of northern Punjab. White, whitish-gray black-silky, Jet-black, pink, grayish-green, black-zebra, green-zebra, camel and cream colour verities are being mined and marketed locally. A tremendous potential exists for insitu block mining, precision sizing/processing for marketing abroad.
Hard Decorative Stones (Granites etc)
The mighty ranges of Himalaya and KaraKoram and their off shoots provide heavens for huge batholith and stock size deposits of granites and basalts etc. of decorative nature. Varities include black, olive green, greenish grey, salt-pepper and white granites in Swat (NWFP), Balochistan and Nagar Parker in Sind. Fair infrastructure is available to most of the areas of interest. Scientific block mining and processing is negligible in Pakistan.
Geological investigations have shown 185 billion tonne of measured coal reserves in zone 2,3,&5 in Pakistan of which more than 184 billion tonne deposits are located in SindhProvince, with Thar coal field being the largest,? followed by Thatta-Sonda, Lakhra and Jhimpir. The coal is lignite to lignite-A to sub bituminous B&C in character with an average heating value of 6000 BTU/lb. The huge deposits warrant investment for use of coal in Power Generation and preparation of clean fuel products.
The Foreland Sedimentary Fold Belt, (Zone-3) carries inexhaustible deposits of rock salt. The base of the deposits could not be known even after drilling for over 4000 meters.? On surface, the deposits extend from North West Frontier Province to the Punjab Province. The salt can meet requirements of all sorts of salt-based chemical industries to any extent and size.
Gemstones occur in northern part of the country. Out of 25 precious and semi precious stones and mineral specimens, 7 are intermittently exploited and marketed all over the world. These are emerald of Swat, rubies of AJK and Hunza-Ishkoman, Gilgit, Pink-Topaz of Katlang-Mardan, aquamarine and tourmaline of Gilgit and Chitral, peridot of Kohistan and Pargasite of Hunza.
All these gems have beautiful attractive colours, excellent crystal clarity and a range of size/weight meeting any international standard. Tremendous potential exists for investment in the subject of scientific mining and cutting/polishing for value addition of gemstone from the known localities and exploration for further findings.
Kashmir and Hunza Gilgit Ruby
Occurring in the Gondwanic Domain (Zone-4), the Ruby deposits of AJK are located in Nangimali? Khora? Katha, Chitta Ratta and Naril nala in Neelum valley. It is associated with calcite veins in recrystalized limestone. It is transparent to translucent and brownish pink to pinkish-red and deep red in colour. The deposit is being mined and the potential resources are estimated at about 24.9 million grams.
Ruby of Hunza, Gilgit have a slight touch of Pinkish hue. The main ruby deposits occur in a dolomitic marble belt extending for over 100 km from Hunza valley to Ishkoman, close to the main Karakorum thrust.
Topaz of Mardan & Dassu-Skardu.
Pink to red and colourless toapaz are located in the Gondwanic Domain (Zone-4) in Mardan and Skardu respectively. Topaz bearing pegmatites are largely found at, 1) Bulechi (350.41/ N., 740.48/ - 35/) 2) Shirngus (350- 23/? N 750- 31/? E? and 3) Gone (350- 41/ N 750- 31/ E ) near Dassu in the Skardu area Northern Pakistan.
Emerald deposits of Swat
These are emplaced in ophiolite of Gondwanic Domain (Zone-4). The best-known deposits located at Mingora, Malakand Division) 160 km north east of Peshawar. Emerald occurs in Ophiolitic melange, which is composed of highly tectonised faulted blocks. The Swat deposits are producing excellent quality gems, described by Gubelin? (1968, 1982) as being some of the finest emeralds in the world. The stones have become famous for their brilliance, medium to deep green colour and unique transparency. These are comparable to the finest Colombian specimens from Muzo (Gubelin, 1968). In the belt emeralds have been discovered at Gujar Kili and Shamozai areas.
Tourmaline and Peridote of Northern areas
Gem quality tourmaline is found in the Kohistan magmatic arc (Zone-6) at Haraosh near Gilgit, Stak Nala (between Gilgit and Skardu), Bulecli and Shingus (Gilgit division) and Garm Chashma in Chitral.
Tourmaline at Haraosh are pink, blue, and green varieties. The Stak Nala is now famous for bicolour and tricolour tourmaline. Gem grade tourmaline also occurs at Buleclhi and Shingus (Gilgit division). Indicolite (blue tourmaline) is found in pegmatite of Garm Chashma (Chitral). Green tourmaline has also been found in pegmatites of Donga Nar in Azad Kashmir.
Peridote of Indus Kohistan is one of the most beautiful gemstones of Pakistan and is sporadically being mined at different localities. It has already captured market both locally and abroad.
Emeralds also occur at Gandao of? Mohmand Agency and Amankot, Mor Darra, Barang of Bajaur agency, Makhad and Charbagh in Swat district and Khaltaro, Gilgit. These deposits, except Charbagh and Makhad, have not been explored as yet.
EXPLORATION/DEVELOPMENT TARGETS FOR INVESTMENT
The Hematite-Magnetite massive bedded iron ore with 75-95% Fe2O3 in Precambrian meta-volcanic of Indus plateform of Kirana Hills at Sarghodha (310.58? N 72o.34? E) Punjab is expected to have large tonnage, therefore, warrants exploration.
The Daskt-e-Kain in distt Chagi is expected to host porphyry deposits with estimated 400 m.tonne resources and 0.09-1.2% Cu, warrants exploration. Other important localities for copper ore in the region around 290.27? N:630.44? E are Darband Chah, Ziarat pir Sultan, Kabul Koh and Missi, with about 200, 50 and 200 m tonne resources respectively. All these prospective targets are emplaced in Chagai magmatic Arc (Zone-2)
Opliotic Copper: Chalcopyrite and pyrite rich massive sulphide type copper deposits located at 320.55? N-and 690.52? E at Boya, Shinkai North Waziristan, having 8.0 million tonne proved and 35.0 m tonne of resources with 0.8-1.0% Cu, associated with breccia in andesite/basalt, warrant development. Similar prospects have been reported from 15 localities in the region which require detail surface and subsurface exploration. The mineralization is associated with obducted ophiolite (Zone-4).
Lead-ZincBela-Khuzdar Lead-Zinc deposits (Baloshistan).
The deposits are located in the ophiolitic belt (Zone-3). Localities of potential deposits are given below.
Gunga, (270. 44/ N.?? 660. 33/ E); 11 km SW of Khuzdar,
Surmai, one km to the south of Gunga,
Shrekran, (270?88/ N : 660? 5/ E); about 24 km to the northwest of Khuzdar
Malkhor Ranj Laki, (270?49/ N, 660? 35/ E); 20 km NW of Khuzdar and
Mithi, located 15 km east of Bela
Chagai-Raskoh : The Chromite deposits in Chagi ? Raskoh megmatic arc of Balochistan (Zone-1) occur in Nag Bunap and Rayo valley and are located at 290. 50/ E : 650.13/ N & 280.50/ E: 640.43/ N. The deposits occur respectively as small isolated lenticullar bodies in the ultramafic rocks in Raskoh range, district Chagai, Balochistan. The Raskoh Chromite deposits contain 47~57% Cr2 O3 having 2.6~3:1 Cr : Fe.ratio. The estimated reserves are about 30,000 tons (Ahmad-1975).
Chilas: It is located at 350.26/ ?N : 740.04/? E and is connected by the Karakorum Highway. Chromite bearing ultramafic rocks of Chilas form part of the 300km long and 40km wide stratiform Chilas Complex. Geological reconnaissance shows thin layers of chromite within the dunite with 26% Cr2O3, 26% Al2O3, 37% FeO and 9% MgO (Jan et al. 1984).
Besham Jijal: The deposits are located at 350.01/? N : 720.52/ E, near Jijal, district Kohistan on the Karakorum highway about 165 km north of Abbottabad.
Several chromite pods and lenses have been reported from the ultramafic rocks in the northwestern part of the Jijal complex. The lenses are upto 2-3 meters thick and 50 meters long. The ore reserves were estimated at 0.6 million tonnes by SDA and according to them the Jijal chromite contains 40-45% Cr2O3 and 12-18% Fe2O3 with Cr:Fe ratio ranging form 2.8 : 1 to 3.6:1.
Manganese deposits of Bela-Khuzdar Ophiolite.
Mosozoic volcanogenic layers and lenses as well as replacement veinlets occur in cherts, basalts and dolerite at different localities in the Bela Khuzdar ophiolite.
Ore prospects are also identified at Tor-Kade Khel, Saidgi, about 20 km Northwest of Miranshah, the Agency headquarter The lense measures about 100x5x75 meters. It contains more than 50% Mn metal.
Barzai deposit carries seems and bands of low to medium grade manganese ore emplaced in red cherts. The Mn content varies between 9 to 26%. More work is needed for locating more bodies and determination of resources. Ore lies unexploited.
Fluorite deposits are located in Maran & Pad Maran at 290. 25/ N : 660 ? 50/ E and at? Dilband at 290? 32/ N : 660.55/ E in District Qalat, Balochistan. The Fluorite deposits are found as bedded replacement, veins and fracture filling in Jurassic Chiltan Limestone. The deposits probably extend to a depth of more than 65 meters. The potential resources are estimated at over 0.1 million tonnes. High grade ore (96% Ca F2 and less than 5% SiO2) is mined from Maran and Dilband.The Pad Maran deposit has? low grade ore with less than 35% CaF2 and high SiO2.
Trivial showings in the Zhob ophiolitic belt at Brunj Kili and Khojak zai, smears 310 33/ N : 690? 31/ E. Here the fluorite-calcite veins cross cut the Triassic Wuloi? Formation.
These deposits located in between Uthal and Khuzdar in Balochistan. These are considered suitable for large-scale production provided export market is developed.
Khuzdar Region: - The Barite deposits occur at Gunga and Monar Talar.
Bela Region: - In Bela region barite occurs at, 1) Bankhri, Naka Pabni, Kundi, Bankhri Sinchi, located at 260.30/ N : 660.21/ E, to the northeast of village Sinchi Bent in the north of Lasbela.
There are two deposits, 1) Dargai-Sakhakot in Mardan district and in Sherwan about 10 Km north of Kumhar, district Abbottabad. Resources at the two lenses are estimated at 1.0 and11.27 million tons respectively.